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What Other Crimes Have Been Discovered And Defined By Anticorruption Legislation?


Bribery of a foreign public official; bribery of a domestic public official; conspiracy, aiding and abetting, or complicity in the primary offence conduct; money laundering; false accounting or false or misleading documents under state criminal laws, or false or reckless dealing with accounting documents under the Criminal Code; and breach of statutory duty



Public and private corruption, embezzlement, trading in influence, abuse of functions, bid rigging, subsidy fraud, and other criminal conduct are sometimes lumped together under the term “corruption.” The Belgian Criminal Code or other legislation make these criminal acts illegal.



Public corruption offenses are classified as a breach of the “obligation of probity” in France. The following offenses are also included in this category: Influence peddling, illegal taking of interest, favoritism, and abuse of public funds are all examples of extortion by public officials. The Sapin II Act broadened the scope of the influence peddling offense, making it illegal to influence foreign and international public officials (the offence previously covered French public officials only).



Passive corruption and bribery in the healthcare sector (Sections 299a and following of the Penal Code) are also punished by law, in addition to corruption of public authorities and economic transactions. Bribery of voters and members of Parliament is also prohibited under Penal Code Sections 108b and 108e. Ireland is a country in Europe. Please read question 1.1 for a list of the criminal offenses covered by the Corruption Act: Corruption by an Irish official in relation to his or her office, employment, position, or business; the giving of a gift, consideration, or advantage that may be used to facilitate an offence under the Corruption Act; the creation or use of false documents; and intimidation are all examples of active and passive corruption.



Corruption can be prosecuted as criminal mismanagement in some instances (Article 158 of the SCC). If a person causes or lets another person to suffer financial loss, he or she faces jail or a monetary penalties. The infringer must be entrusted with the management of another’s property, or the oversight of such management. Entrustment can take the form of a legislation, an official order, a legal transaction, or a gift of authority. In the course of and in violation of his or her duty, he or she causes financial damage. Persons operating on behalf of a business, even if without a particular mandate, are subject to the same penalties. In addition, the SCC has prohibitions regarding violations of accounting and bookkeeping standards. For example, failing to keep adequate accounts is punishable under Article 166 of the SCC if the offender is facing bankruptcy proceedings or has a certificate of unsatisfied claims issued against him or her. It is deemed a failure to implement suitable organizational measures if a corporation fails to account appropriately. Even if no bankruptcy or default is declared, Article 325 of the SCC makes the offender liable for failing to follow accounting requirements and imposes fines. Furthermore, if, for example, accounting obligations are not met, the Swiss Code of Obligations imposes civil culpability. As a result, it is reasonable to conclude that civil culpability is inextricably linked to criminal liability, particularly when accounting papers are falsified. The manufacture and use of false documents with the intent to cause financial loss or damage or to acquire an unlawful advantage is prohibited under Article 251 of the SCC.



The following are the criminal offenses: The two basic offences of providing, promising, or giving an advantage, and asking, agreeing to receive, or accepting an advantage in circumstances including the inappropriate performance of a relevant function or activity, are covered under Sections 1 and 2 of the Bribery Act 2010. A reasonable person in the United Kingdom would expect a relevant function or activity to be conducted in good faith, impartially, or in a certain way because the person executing it is in a position of trust. The term “improper performance” refers to a failure to meet that standard. Bribery in the public and private sectors is covered by these laws. Promise, propose, or give an advantage (financial or otherwise) to a foreign public official with the goal of influencing that person and obtaining/retaining business or a business advantage is illegal under Section 6 of the act. There is no requirement that the person bribing has the intent to induce improper action, or that the person bribing has knowledge or belief that accepting the bribe will result in wrong behavior – simply that the person bribing seeks to influence the official acting in his or her official function. The failure of a commercial organization to prevent a bribe being paid to obtain or keep business or a business advantage was made illegal under Section 7 of the Bribery Act. The organization had proper protocols in place to prevent bribery, according to the defense.


United Arab Emirates

The Federal Penal Code, which covers most criminal offenses, is the source of anti-corruption laws. The following are examples of financial-related offenses covered by bribery legislation: fraud; embezzlement; money laundering; terrorist financing; the guarantee of a company loan to a chairman or person in power; disclosure of classified information; perjury; court decisions made willingly against the truth; the purposeful provision of false information by court officials or prejudice against a particular party by court officials (e.g., a translator changing the answers of a witness). This is not an exhaustive list; it only shows a few of the anti-corruption offenses that have been uncovered.


United States of America

While the FCPA does not criminalize acts other than bribery, it is sometimes combined with allegations of money laundering, wire fraud, conspiracy, or violation of the Travel Act (DOJ and SEC, “A Resource Guide to the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act” at 48–49 (2012, revised 2015)).