Since ensuring an appropriate standard of life safety to occupants of a building is the primary objective of any fire prevention measure, most countries’ legislative standards for fire protection are focused on life safety issues. Property security features are designed to keep physical damage to a minimum. In certain instances, these priorities are mutually beneficial. When an owner is worried about the loss of property, its operation, or its contents, he or she can choose to go beyond and beyond the required minimum to resolve life safety concerns.
A fire detection and warning system allows for the automatic detection of fire and the alerting of building occupants in the event of a fire. The signal to begin the evacuation of the occupants from the premises is the audible or visual warning given by a fire detection device. This is particularly relevant in large or multi-story buildings where occupants would be unaware that a fire was burning inside the structure and where a warning from another occupant would be impossible or impractical.
All or any of the following can be used in a fire detection and warning system:
– a control unit for the system
– a primary or key source of electrical power
– a backup power source, usually provided by batteries or an emergency generator
Automatic fire alarms, manual pull stations, and/or sprinkler system flow devices are all connected to the system control unit’s “initiating circuits.”Alarm-indicating devices, such as bells or lights, that are connected to the machine control unit’s “indicating circuits”. Auxiliary controls, such as ventilation shut-off functions, are connected to the system control unit’s output circuits. An external response site, such as the fire department, is informed of the remote warning. To trigger a fire safety or smoke control system, control circuits are used.
Smoke management systems can be used to prevent smoke from entering escape paths during a structure’s evacuation. To supply fresh air to the exit direction, mechanical ventilation systems are widely used. The most popular use of this method is to pressurize stairwells or atrium buildings. This is a feature that is supposed to increase life protection.
Building occupants are often supplied with portable fire extinguishers and water hose reels to fight small fires. Building occupants should not be encouraged to use a portable fire extinguisher or hose reel unless they have undergone sufficient instruction. Operators should always be careful to avoid putting themselves in a situation where secure egress is obstructed. The first phase in any fire, no matter how small, should always be to alert other building occupants of the threat of fire and call for professional fire service assistance.
A water supply, delivery pipes, and piping connected to automatic sprinkler heads make up a water sprinkler device. Although most sprinkler systems are designed to avoid a fire from spreading, many have succeeded in completely extinguishing it.
A common misconception is that in the event of a burn, all automatic sprinkler heads would trigger. In reality, each sprinkler head is programmed to activate only when there is enough heat to indicate a fire. The sprinkler head(s) that have opened as a result of the fire in their immediate vicinity are then the only ones that are supplying water. This design function ensures that water is used effectively for firefighting and that water damage is minimized.
To ensure efficient operation in the event of a fire, water for an automatic sprinkler device must be available in adequate quantity, volume, and pressure at all times. If a public water source is inadequate, a reservoir or pump system must be built to ensure a reliable water supply.
At all times, control valves should be in the open position. Often, the automated fire alarm system will supervise the control valves by adding valve tamper switches, which send a trouble or supervisory signal to the fire alarm control panel to indicate a closed valve. The valves should be locked in the open position if this form of monitoring is not feasible.
Water is pumped through a piping system suspended from the ceiling, with sprinkler heads suspended at regular intervals along the pipes. Sprinkler system piping should be capable of withstanding a working pressure of not less than 1,200 kPa. Screwed, flanged, mechanical joint, or brazed fittings should be used for exposed piping systems.
A sprinkler head consists of an orifice and a spray deflector, which are usually kept closed by a temperature-sensitive releasing feature. Sprinkler manufacturers use the water discharge pattern and spacing criteria for individual sprinkler heads to ensure full coverage of the covered danger.
In situations where water sprinklers would not provide sufficient protection or where the possibility of water damage would be unacceptable, special extinguishing devices are used. Special extinguishing systems can be used in combination with water sprinkler systems in many situations where water damage is a problem, with the special extinguishing system configured to respond at an early stage of fire growth.
Unique extinguishing devices using water and water additives
Water spray systems improve the effectiveness of water by creating smaller water droplets, exposing a wider surface area of water to the fire and increasing the heat absorption potential. Where there is a chance of an exposure fire occurring in an adjacent area, this type of device is often chosen to keep large pressure vessels, such as butane spheres, cold. The system is similar to a sprinkler system, except that all heads are open and control valves are opened using a separate detection system or manual intervention. This allows water to flow through the piping system to all spray devices that act as piping system outlets.
A liquid concentrate is pumped into the water supply before the control valve in a foam system. Foam concentrate and air are combined in the discharge unit, either manually or by aspirating air into the device. An enlarged foam is formed when air is entrained in the foam solution. Expanded foam forms a blanket on top of the flammable liquid since it is less compact than most hydrocarbons. Carbon vapour propagation is minimized by using this foam blanket. Water, which makes up up to 97 percent of the foam solution, has a cooling effect that helps to minimize vapour propagation and cool hot surfaces that could cause re-ignition.